Everything important that has happened to humans since the Paleolithic is due to environmental influences.
Scraps of information have nothing to do with it. What we should aim at producing is men who possess both culture and expert knowledge in some special direction.
Their expert knowledge will give them the ground to start from, and their culture will lead them as deep as philosophy and as high as art. We have to remember that the valuable intellectual development is self-development, and that it mostly takes place between the ages of sixteen and thirty.
As to training, the most important part is given by mothers before the age of twelve.
A saying due to Archbishop Temple illustrates my meaning. Surprise was expressed at the success in after-life of a man, who as a boy at Rugby had been somewhat undistin-guished. In the history of education, the most striking phenomenon is that schools of learning, which at one epoch are alive with a ferment of genius, in a succeeding generation exhibit merely pedantry and routine.
The reason is, that they are overladen with inert ideas. Education with inert ideas is not only useless: Except at rare intervals of intellectual ferment, education in the past has been radically infected with inert ideas.
That is the reason why uneducated clever women, who have seen much of the world, are in middle life so much the most cultured part of the community. They have been saved from this horrible burden of inert ideas.
Every intellectual revolution which has ever stirred humanity into greatness has been a passionate protest against inert ideas. Then, alas, with pathetic ignorance of human psychology, it has proceeded by some educational scheme to bind humanity afresh with inert ideas of its own fashioning.
Let us now ask how in our system of education we are to guard against this mental dry rot. The child should make them his own, and should understand their application here and now in the circumstances of his actual life.
From the very beginning of his education, the child should experience the joy of discovery. The discovery which he has to make, is that general ideas give an understanding of that stream of events which pours through his life, which is his life.
By understanding I mean more than a mere logical analysis, though that is included.
But if education is not useful, what is it? Is it a talent, to be hidden away in a napkin? Of course, education should be useful, whatever your aim in life. It was useful to Saint Augustine and it was useful to Napoleon. It is useful, because understanding is useful.
I pass lightly over that understanding which should be given by the literary side of education. Nor do I wish to be supposed to pronounce on the relative merits of a classical or a modern curriculum. I would only remark that the understanding which we want is an understanding of an insistent present.
The only use of a knowledge of the past is to equip us for the present. No more deadly harm can be done to young minds than by depreciation of the present.
The present contains all that there is. It is holy ground; for it is the past, and it is the future. At the same time it must be observed that an age is no less past if it existed two hundred years ago than if it existed two thousand years ago.
Do not be deceived by the pedantry of dates. The communion of saints is a great and inspiring assemblage, but it has only one possible hall of meeting, and that is, the present, and the mere lapse of time through which any particular group of saints must travel to reach that meeting-place, makes very little difference.
Passing now to the scientific and logical side of education, we remember that here also ideas which are not utilised are positively harmful. By utilising an idea, I mean relating it to that stream, compounded of sense perceptions, feelings, hopes, desires, and of mental activities adjusting thought to thought, which forms our life.
I can imagine a set of beings which might fortify their souls by passively reviewing disconnected ideas. Humanity is not built that way except perhaps some editors of newspapers.National Unity. Write an essay on “National Unity” in about words.
National unity means one nation as a whole formed in a one complete nation. Many people of different castes live in the same nation. They speak different languages.
They have different modes of living and different religions.
From The Aims of Education and Other Essays, Macmillan Company, , as reprinted in Education in the Age of Science, edited by Brand Blanshard, New York, Basic Books, Here is the editor’s prefatory note: In his famous essay called “The Aims of Education,” delivered as his presidential address to the Mathematical Association of England in , Alfred North Whitehead addressed.
IN WATCHING the flow of events over the past decade or so, it is hard to avoid the feeling that something very fundamental has happened in world history. unity throughout the essay. • Unity is the continuity of a single idea (the thesis) throughout the essay.
Each detail and example should develop logically and refer back to the original focus. • Coherence means that each point should be linked to the previous and following points t o help the essay flow and progress logically and clearly.
Phenomenology. In its central use, the term "phenomenology" names a movement in twentieth century philosophy. A second use of "phenomenology" common in contemporary philosophy names a property of some mental states, the property they have if and only if there is something it is like to be in them.
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