Tablet from the Library of Ashurbanipal containing part of the Epic of Gilgamesh The first libraries consisted of archives of the earliest form of writing —the clay tablets in cuneiform script discovered in temple rooms in Sumer  some dating back to BC. There is also evidence of libraries at Nippur about BC and those at Nineveh about BC showing a library classification system. The tablets were stored in a variety of containers such as wooden boxes, woven baskets of reeds, or clay shelves.
Prehistoric literacy[ edit ] Origins of literacy[ edit ] Literacy is emerged with the development of numeracy and computational reading and writing arabic made easy as early as 8, BCE.
Script developed independently at least five times in human history MesopotamiaEgyptthe Indus civilizationlowland Mesoamericaand China. During this era, literacy was "a largely functional matter, propelled by the need to manage the new quantities of information and the new type of governance created by trade and large scale production".
Proto-cuneiform texts exhibit not only numerical signs, but also ideograms depicting objects being counted. The Egyptian hieroglyphic writing system was the first notation system to have phonetic values.
These civilizations used glyphic writing and bar-and-dot numerical notation systems for purposes related to royal iconography and calendar systems. These systematic notations were found inscribed on bones and recorded sacrifices made, tributes received, and animals hunted, which were activities of the elite.
These oracle-bone inscriptions were the early ancestors of modern Chinese script and contained logosyllabic script and numerals.
Indus script is largely pictorial and has not been deciphered yet. It may or may not include abstract signs. It is thought that they wrote from right to left and that the script is thought to be logographic. Because it has not been deciphered, linguists disagree on whether it is a complete and independent writing system; however, it is genuinely thought to be an independent writing system that emerged in the Harappa culture.
Origins of the alphabet[ edit ] According to social anthropologist Jack Goodythere are two interpretations that regard the origin of the alphabet.
Many classical scholars, such as historian Ignace Gelbcredit the Ancient Greeks for creating the first alphabetic system c. But Goody contests, "The importance of Greek culture of the subsequent history of Western Europe has led to an over-emphasis, by classicists and others, on the addition of specific vowel signs to the set of consonantal ones that had been developed earlier in Western Asia".
Much of this theory's development is credited to English archeologist Flinders Petriewho, incame across a series of Canaanite inscriptions located in the turquoise mines of Serabit el-Khadem.
Ten years later, English Egyptologist Alan Gardiner reasoned that these letters contain an alphabet, as well as references to the Canaanite goddess Asherah.
InWilliam F. Albright deciphered the text using additional evidence that had been discovered subsequent to Goody's findings.
This included a series of inscriptions from Ugaritdiscovered in by French archaeologist Claude F. Some of these inscriptions were mythological texts written in an early Canaanite dialect that consisted of a letter cuneiform consonantal alphabet.
Another significant discovery was made in when three arrowheads were uncovered, each containing identical Canaanite inscriptions from twelfth century BCE. According to Frank Moore Crossthese inscriptions consisted of alphabetic signs that originated during the transitional development from pictographic script to a linear alphabet.
Moreover, he asserts, "These inscriptions also provided clues to extend the decipherment of earlier and later alphabetic texts". During the Late Bronze Agesuccessor alphabets appeared throughout the Mediterranean region and were employed for PhoenicianHebrew and Aramaic.
According to Goody, these cuneiform scripts may have influenced the development of the Greek alphabet several centuries later.
Historically, the Greeks contended that their writing system was modeled after the Phoenicians. However, many Semitic scholars now believe that Ancient Greek is more consistent with an early form Canaanite that was used c.
While the earliest Greek inscriptions are dated c. Baruch ben NeriahJeremiah's scribe, used this alphabet to create the later scripts of the Old Testament. It was then that the new script "Square Hebrew" emerged and the older one rapidly died out. As the Bronze Age collapsedthe Aramaeans moved into Canaan and Phoenician territories and adopted their scripts.
Although early evidence of this writing is scarce, archeologists have uncovered a wide range of later Aramaic texts, written as early as the seventh century BCE.
Due to its longevity and prevalence in the region, Achaemenid rulers would come to adopt it as a "diplomatic language". Aramaic merchants carried older variations of the language as far as Indiawhere it later influenced the development of Brahmi scripture.
It also led to the developments of ArabicPahlavi an Iranian adaptation"as well as for a range of alphabets used by early Turkish and Mongol tribes in SiberiaMongolia and Turkestan ".
The Aramaic language would die out with the spread of Islam and with it, its influence of Arabic. Ancient and post-classical literacy[ edit ] Further information:Arabic Reading & Writing Made Easy [Dr.
Abu Ameenah Bilal Philips] on barnweddingvt.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Arabic Reading & Writing Made Easy: Dr. Bilal Philips [# 5D4 [email protected], PB pp AS Noordeen5/5(1).
beginner's arabic script language reading and writing content learn to write, step by step understand the script in different contexts cmsonants, which contain the basic idea underlying all the words made the root. An example is the root consisting of the three consonants k t b, which has the basic idea of writing.
From this root Arabic makes. Online lessons with examples explaining the rules for reading Arabic text and sentences correctly. Home | About this site | Contact | Site map Train Writing Arabic Arabic Easy" E-book; Learn How to Read Arabic Sentences The purpose of the 10 following reading lessons is to train letter recognition and reading.
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