History of Parchment Parchment History - Facts and Origin of Parchment Over the course of modern human history, mankind has strived to find ways to record written information on easy-to-use materials that can survive long periods of time. Carving words into stone, woods or pottery was not efficient and demanded a lot of resources, so other storage mediums had to be found. History of paper and paper-like materials started more than years ago in the birthplace of modern civilization — Egypt, Sudan and ancient Mesopotamia.
The term originally referred only to the skin of sheep and, occasionally, goats. The equivalent material made from calfskin, which was of finer quality, was known as vellum from the Old French velin or vellin, and ultimately from the Latin vitulus, meaning a calf ;  while the finest of all was "uterine vellum", taken from a calf foetus or stillborn calf.
Some authorities have sought to observe these distinctions strictly: InWilliam Horman wrote in his Vulgaria: Is not parchment made of sheepskins? Ay, my lord, and of calves' skins too. To-day the distinction, among collectors of manuscripts, is that vellum is a highly refined form of skin, parchment a cruder form, usually thick, harsh, less highly polished than vellum, but with no distinction between skin of calf, or sheep, or of goat.
This account, originating in the writings of Pliny the Elder Natural HistoryBook XII, 69—70is dubious because parchment had been in use in Anatolia and elsewhere long before the rise of Pergamon.
As prices rose for papyrus and the reed used for making it was over-harvested towards local extinction in the two nomes of the Nile delta that produced it, Pergamon adapted by increasing use of parchment.
David Diringer noted that "the first mention of Egyptian documents written on leather goes back to the Fourth Dynasty c. Ibscher, and preserved in the Cairo Museum ; a roll of the Twelfth Dynasty c.
Rabbinic literature traditionally maintains that the institution of employing parchment made of animal hides for the writing of ritual objects such as the Torahmezuzahand tefillin is Sinaitic in origin, with special designations for different types of parchment such as gevil and klaf.
In the later Middle Agesespecially the 15th century, parchment was largely replaced by paper for most uses except luxury manuscripts, some of which were also on paper. New techniques in paper milling allowed it to be much cheaper than parchment; it was made of textile rags and of very high quality.
With the advent of printing in the later fifteenth century, the demands of printers far exceeded the supply of animal skins for parchment. Latin grant written on fine parchment or vellum with seal dated There was a short period during the introduction of printing where parchment and paper were used at the same time, with parchment in fact vellum the more expensive luxury option, preferred by rich and conservative customers.
Although most copies of the Gutenberg Bible are on paper, some were printed on parchment; 12 of the 48 surviving copies, with most incomplete. InJohannes Trithemius preferred the older methods, because "handwriting placed on parchment will be able to endure a thousand years.
But how long will printing last, which is dependent on paper? The heyday of parchment use was during the medieval period, but there has been a growing revival of its use among artists since the late 20th century.
Although parchment never stopped being used primarily for governmental documents and diplomas it had ceased to be a primary choice for artist's supports by the end of 15th century Renaissance. This was partly due to its expense and partly due to its unusual working properties.
Parchment consists mostly of collagen. When the water in paint media touches parchment's surface, the collagen melts slightly, forming a raised bed for the paint, a quality highly prized by some artists. A copy of the Sachsenspiegela German legal code, written on parchment with straps and clasps on the binding Parchment is also extremely affected by its environment and changes in humidity, which can cause buckling.
Books with parchment pages were bound with strong wooden boards and clamped tightly shut by metal often brass clasps or leather straps;  this acted to keep the pages pressed flat despite humidity changes.
Such metal fittings continued to be found on books as decorative features even after the use of paper made them unnecessary. To support the needs of the revival of use by artists, a revival in the art of preparing individual skins is also underway.
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Hand-prepared skins are usually preferred by artists because they are more uniform in surface and have fewer oily spots which can cause long-term cracking of paint than mass-produced parchment, which is usually made for lamp shades, furniture, or other interior design purposes.
They do not date the age of the writing but the preparation of the parchment itself. This removes blood and grime from the skin and prepares it for a dehairing liquor.
Today, the lime solution is occasionally sharpened by the use of sodium sulfide. The liquor bath would have been in wooden or stone vats and the hides stirred with a long wooden pole to avoid human contact with the alkaline solution.
Sometimes the skins would stay in the unhairing bath for eight or more days depending how concentrated and how warm the solution was kept—unhairing could take up to twice as long in winter.
The vat was stirred two or three times a day to ensure the solution's deep and uniform penetration.Old parchment paper - gg GoGraph Stock Photography, Illustrations, and Clip Art allows you to quickly find the right graphic.
Featuring over 42,, stock photos, vector clip art images, clipart pictures, background graphics and clipart graphic images. The parchment paper won’t lie flat in the bottom of a pie pan since it’s a flat sheet going into a round pan.
You can try to press out any creases or folds knowing that you might end up with some bumps in the bottom of the crust.
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The image is available for download in high resolution quality up to x Category Description: Pergamenata Parchment Vellum Imported from Europe, this collection of parchment paper is made using authentic, old world techniques. Offered in a neutral color palette and with a slight translucence, this paper has a multitude of .
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