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Moses Mendelssohn Though reading German books was forbidden in the s by Jewish inspectors who had a measure of police power in Germany, Moses Mendelson found his first German book, an edition of Protestant theology, at a well-organized system of Jewish charity for needy Talmud students.
Mendelssohn read this book and found proof of the existence of God — his first meeting with a sample of European letters.
Mendelssohn learned many new languages, and with his whole education consisting of Talmud lessons, he thought in Hebrew and translated for himself every new piece of work he met into this language. The divide between the Jews and the rest of society was caused by a lack of translation between these two languages, and Mendelssohn translated the Torah into German, bridging the gap between the two; this book allowed Jews to speak and write in German, preparing them for participation in German culture and secular science.
InMendelssohn began to serve as a teacher in the house of Isaac Bernhard, the owner of a silk factory, after beginning his publications of philosophical essays in German.
He also believed that revelation could not contradict reason. Like the deists, Mendelssohn claimed that reason could discover the reality of God, divine providence, and immortality of the soul.
He was the first to speak out against the use of excommunication as a religious threat. At the height of his career, inMendelssohn was publicly challenged by a Christian apologist, a Zurich pastor named John Lavaterto defend the superiority of Judaism over Christianity.
From then on, he was involved in defending Judaism in print. Speculating that no religious institution should use coercion and emphasized that Judaism does not coerce the mind through dogma, he argued that through reason, all people could discover religious philosophical truths, but what made Judaism unique was its revealed code of legal, ritual, and moral law.
He said that Jews must live in civil society, but only in a way that their right to observe religious laws is granted, while also recognizing the needs for respect, and multiplicity of religions. He campaigned for emancipation and instructed Jews to form bonds with the gentile governments, attempting to improve the relationship between Jews and Christians while arguing for tolerance and humanity.
He became the symbol of the Jewish Enlightenment, the Haskalah. Austrian Emperor Joseph II was foremost in espousing these new ideals.
As early ashe issued the Patent of Toleration for the Jews of Lower Austria, thereby establishing civic equality for his Jewish subjects. Beforewhen general citizenship was largely nonexistent in the Holy Roman Empire, its inhabitants were subject to varying estate regulations.
In different ways from one territory of the empire to another, these regulations classified inhabitants into different groups, such as dynasts, members of the court entourage, other aristocrats, city dwellers burghersJews, Huguenots in Prussia a special estate untilfree peasantsserfspeddlers and Gypsieswith different privileges and burdens attached to each classification.
Legal inequality was the principle. The concept of citizenship was mostly restricted to cities, especially free imperial cities. Citizenship was often further restricted to city dwellers affiliated to the locally dominant Christian denomination Calvinism, Roman Catholicism, or Lutheranism.
City dwellers of other denominations or religions and those who lacked the necessary wealth to qualify as citizens were considered to be mere inhabitants who lacked political rights, and were sometimes subject to revocable residence permits.
In the 18th century, some Jews and their families such as Daniel Itzig in Berlin gained equal status with their Christian fellow city dwellers, but had a different status from noblemen, Huguenots, or serfs.
They often did not enjoy the right to freedom of movement across territorial or even municipal boundaries, let alone the same status in any new place as in their previous location.
With the abolition of differences in legal status during the Napoleonic era and its aftermath, citizenship was established as a new franchise generally applying to all former subjects of the monarchs. Prussia conferred citizenship on the Prussian Jews inthough this by no means resulted in full equality with other citizens.
Jewish emancipation did not eliminate all forms of discrimination against Jews, who often remained barred from holding official state positions. The German federal edicts of merely held out the prospect of full equality, but it was not genuinely implemented at that time, and even the promises which had been made were modified.
However, such forms of discrimination were no longer the guiding principle for ordering society, but a violation of it. In Austria, many laws restricting the trade and traffic of Jewish subjects remained in force until the middle of the 19th century in spite of the patent of toleration.
Some of the crown lands, such as Styria and Upper Austria, forbade any Jews to settle within their territory; in Bohemia, Moravia, and Austrian Silesia many cities were closed to them.
The Jews were also burdened with heavy taxes and imposts. In the German kingdom of Prussia, the government materially modified the promises made in the disastrous year of The promised uniform regulation of Jewish affairs was time and again postponed. In the period between andno less than 21 territorial laws affecting Jews in the older eight provinces of the Prussian state were in effect, each having to be observed by part of the Jewish community.
At that time, no official was authorized to speak in the name of all Prussian Jews, or Jewry in most of the other 41 German stateslet alone for all German Jews.
Nevertheless, a few men came forward to promote their cause, foremost among them being Gabriel Riesser d. He won over public opinion to such an extent that this equality was granted in Prussia on April 6,in Hanover and Nassau on September 5 and on December 12, respectively, and also in his home state of Hamburgthen home to the second-largest Jewish community in Germany.
After the establishment of the North German Confederation by the law of July 3,all remaining statutory restrictions imposed on the followers of different religions were abolished; this decree was extended to all the states of the German empire after the events of The Jewish Enlightenment[ edit ] Main article: Haskalah During the General Enlightenment s to late smany Jewish women began to frequent non-Jewish salons and to campaign for emancipation.Nazi Germany is the common English name for Germany between and , when Adolf Hitler and his Nazi Party (NSDAP) controlled the country through a barnweddingvt.com Hitler's rule, Germany was transformed into a totalitarian state that controlled nearly all aspects of life via the Gleichschaltung legal process.
The official name of the state was Deutsches Reich ("German Reich") until. The link thus established between ideology and terror, although only realised by totalitarian organisation, is nonetheless implicit in all forms of ideology, for ideology ‘is quite literally what its name indicates: it is the logic of an idea’ and it treats the course of history in all its contingency and complexity as a function of the ‘logical exposition of its “idea”’.
Jan 23, · Reading recommendations on Weimar Germany? Discussion in 'theory, Arthur Rosenberg's A History of the German Republic, whilst outdated in many ways, Edit: Also 'From Weimar to Auschwitz.
Essays in German History' by Hans Mommsen () - same question. [Jewish and] “American Atrocities in Germany” by Judge Edward L. Van Roden This damning expose of the sadistic torture of German POW's by mostly Jewish prosecutors and captors in Dachau at the end of WW2 had some postive consequences.
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In this book Hans Mommsen analyzes perhaps the most appalling political journey of the twentieth century--the road traversed by the German people as the Weimar Republic collapsed and .
Jewish settlers founded the Ashkenazi Jewish community in the Early (5th to 10th centuries CE) and High Middle Ages (circa – CE). The community survived under Charlemagne, but suffered during the barnweddingvt.comtions of well poisoning during the Black Death (–53) led to mass slaughter of German Jews, and they fled in large numbers to Poland.