Conclusion Introduction There are no precise, reliable statistics on the amount of computer crime and the economic loss to victims, partly because many of these crimes are apparently not detected by victims, many of these crimes are never reported to authorities, and partly because the losses are often difficult to calculate. Nevertheless, there is a consensus among both law enforcement personnel and computer scientists who specialize in security that both the number of computer crime incidents and the sophistication of computer criminals is increasing rapidly.
Explore human lineage through time: April 10, Australopithecus africanus The first member of its genus to be discovered, Australopithecus africanus is the oldest species of hominin to be found in southern Africa.
Cave sites where it is found have been dated approximately to Its morphology is similar to Australopithecus afarensis, but it has important differences in the skull and teeth.
The fact that Au. The first specimen of Au. The biologist Raymond Dart believed that this specimen was a member of the hominin clade based on the forward positioning of the foramen magnum the hole in the base of the skull where the spinal cord connects with the brainwhich is seen in humans and other bipedal hominins.
This belief was held in part because of a fossil skull and jaw found in England, called Piltdown Man, which had a large brain like a human but with a jaw and teeth that were more primitive more like those of an ape.
In time, the Piltdown fossil was shown to be a fake, simply a human skull and an orangutan jaw with filed down teeth, but for the first part of the 20th century Piltdown Man was considered to be the best case for a member of the lineage between apes and humans.
It was not until the s that Au. By this time, a number of cranial and other postcranial skeletal material not from the skull specimens attributed to Au. These sites are limestone caves that were eaten away by rainwater and filled with animal remains and sediments from the surface.
Because of this context, the sites at which Au. Thus, these sites are primarily dated using biochronological methods.
The fauna that are used to date these sites have also led scientists to reconstruct the habitats at which Au. The morphology of Au.
For instance, it is small-bodied compared to later hominins and possesses the pelvic structures and adaptations to the legs and feet that characterize habitual bipeds, such as a broad, short pelvis and a valgus knee a knee that is angled underneath the body.
It also has curved phalanges finger bones like Au. These traits are derived relative to A. This species also has a more flexed basicranium a skull base that is more angulated in the center. Although the exact function of this trait is not well understood, some scientists have suggested that this is an adaptation to the forces of chewing hard foods.
This trait is also commonly seen in P. These include a taller frontal bone the bone that makes up the forehead and an occipital bone the bone at the back of the skull with a longer and flatter orientation on the bottom and a higher point of directional change towards the top of the bone, which results in a higher, more rounded shape for the back of the skull.
These derived traits are also found in Homo species. Overall, these traits suggest that Au. The changes in the dentition and buttressing in the face may indicate that Au. However, studies of microwear the scratches and pits left on the teeth by chewing of food suggest that Au.
The relationship of Au. Most scientists agree that Au. This cloudiness results in part because A. It also shares the presence of anterior pillars with only P.
This last hypothesis would indicate that the Paranthropus genus was not monophyletic did not contain an ancestor species and all of its descendent speciessince Au. Another important topic of discussion surrounding Au. The variation in many characteristics such as molar size and facial structure is larger than that seen in any living apes.
This point has led some scientists to believe that the species Au. These differences still stand even when considering Au.High Bridge was an important railroad town for most of its history. In the picture you can see two tracks.
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CRL is a site of major research and development to support and advance nuclear technology, in particular. Australopithecus africanus. The first member of its genus to be discovered, Australopithecus africanus is the oldest species of hominin to be found in southern Africa.
Cave sites where it is found have been dated approximately to ma based mostly on biochronological methods (dating methods utilizing the relative chronologies of non-hominin animal fossils).