Islamic philosophy enriches the tradition, developing two types of arguments. Arabic philosophers falasifasuch as Ibn Sina c.
One of the five ways, the fifth, is the argument from design, which we looked at in the last essay. The other four are versions of the first-cause argument, which we explore here. The argument is basically very simple, natural, intuitive, and commonsensical. We have to become complex and clever in order to doubt or dispute it.
It is based on an instinct of mind that we all share: Nothing just is without a reason why it is. Everything that is has some adequate or sufficient reason why it is.
Philosophers call this the Principle of Sufficient Reason. We use it every day, in common sense and in science as well as in philosophy and theology. If we saw a rabbit suddenly appear on an empty table, we would not blandly say, "Hi, rabbit. Did the rabbit fall from the ceiling?
If there seems to be no physical cause, we look for a psychological cause: As a last resort, we look for a supernatural cause, a miracle.
But there must be some cause. We never deny the Principle of Sufficient Reason itself. No one believes the Pop Theory: Perhaps we will never find the cause, but there must be a cause for everything that comes into existence. If there is no first cause, then the universe is like a great chain with many links; each link is held up by the link above it, but the whole chain is held up by nothing.
Now the whole universe is a vast, interlocking chain of things that come into existence. Each of these things must therefore have a cause. My parents caused me, my grandparents caused them, et cetera. But it is not that simple. I would not be here without billions of causes, from the Big Bang through the cooling of the galaxies and the evolution of the protein molecule to the marriages of my ancestors.
The universe is a vast and complex chain of causes. But does the universe as a whole have a cause? Is there a first cause, an uncaused cause, a transcendent cause of the whole chain of causes?Steps for Writing an Argumentation Essay.
Review all the reading material on the subject — notes, highlighting, etc.; Divide the main points into those for your issue and those against your issue.; Write a thesis statement identifying the issue and your position.; Construct an outline which has the primary main ideas supporting your position and one or two opposing arguments for refutation.
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Write an essay in which you explain how Paul Bogard builds an argument to persuade his audience that natural darkness should be preserved. In your essay, analyze how Bogard uses one or more of the features in the directions that precede the passage (or features of your own choice) to strengthen the logic and persuasiveness of his argument.
What Is an Argumentative Essay? Argument essays seek to state a position on an issue and give several reasons, supported by evidence, for agreeing with that position. David Hume: Causation.
David Hume () is one of the British Empiricists of the Early Modern period, along with John Locke and George barnweddingvt.comgh the three advocate similar empirical standards for knowledge, that is, that there are no innate ideas and that all knowledge comes from experience, Hume is known for applying this standard rigorously to causation and necessity.
Part I: Introduction--What inspired my argumentative response? For decades, too many high-school teachers have been instilling persuasive writing skills by teaching students the five-paragraph essay.