Siobhan Munday This essay will endeavour to explore, compare and contrast the concepts within the theories of mind, which were developed, by Sigmund Freud, Carl Rogers and B F Skinner. To understand these different theories, the ideas established by each theorist will be explained and contrasted to contract the similarities and differences between the three. Sigmund Freud created multiple concepts in regards to human behaviour, and the actions behind these behaviours incorporated his theories of mind, or known as his psychoanalysis theories. Carl Rogers focused his theories of mind on the ideas behind self- psychology and was interested in the theories and practice of counselling.
By Saul McLeodupdated Carl Rogers was a humanistic psychologist who agreed with the main assumptions of Abraham Maslowbut added that for a person to "grow", they need an environment that provides them with genuineness openness and self-disclosureacceptance being seen with unconditional positive regardand empathy being listened to and understood.
Without these, relationships and healthy personalities will not develop as they should, much like a tree will not grow without sunlight and water. Rogers believed that every person could achieve their goals, wishes, and desires in life. When, or rather if they did so, self actualization took place.
This was one of Carl Rogers most important contributions to psychology, and for a person to reach their potential a number of factors must be satisfied. Rogers rejected the deterministic nature of both psychoanalysis and behaviorism and maintained that we behave as we do because of the way we perceive our situation.
Like a flower that will grow to its full potential if the conditions are right, but which is constrained by its environment, so people will flourish and reach their potential if their environment is good enough.
However, unlike a flower, the potential of the individual human is unique, and we are meant to develop in different ways according to our personality. Rogers believed that people are inherently good and creative. They become destructive only when a poor self-concept or external constraints override the valuing process.
Carl Rogers believed that for a person to achieve self-actualization they must be in a state of congruence. Rogers describes an individual who is actualizing as a fully functioning person.
The main determinant of whether we will become self-actualized is childhood experience. The Fully Functioning Person Rogers believed that every person could achieve their goal. This means that the person is in touch with the here and now, his or her subjective experiences and feelings, continually growing and changing.
In many ways, Rogers regarded the fully functioning person as an ideal and one that people do not ultimately achieve. Rogers identified five characteristics of the fully functioning person: Negative feelings are not denied, but worked through rather than resorting to ego defense mechanisms.
Being able to live and fully appreciate the present, not always looking back to the past or forward to the future i.
A person does not play safe all the time. This involves the ability to adjust and change and seek new experiences. For Rogers, fully functioning people are well adjusted, well balanced and interesting to know.
Often such people are high achievers in society. Critics claim that the fully functioning person is a product of Western culture. In other cultures, such as Eastern cultures, the achievement of the group is valued more highly than the achievement of any one person. Personality Development Central to Rogers' personality theory is the notion of self or self-concept.
This is defined as "the organized, consistent set of perceptions and beliefs about oneself. The self is our inner personality, and can be likened to the soul, or Freud's psyche.
The self is influenced by the experiences a person has in their life, and out interpretations of those experiences. Two primary sources that influence our self-concept are childhood experiences and evaluation by others. According to Rogerswe want to feel, experience and behave in ways which are consistent with our self-image and which reflect what we would like to be like, our ideal-self.
The closer our self-image and ideal-self are to each other, the more consistent or congruent we are and the higher our sense of self-worth. A person is said to be in a state of incongruence if some of the totality of their experience is unacceptable to them and is denied or distorted in the self-image.Essay Writing Service Secure your A+ worthy essay According to B.F.
Skinner, the man operates under operant conditioning and thus can be conditioned to perform, feel and say something. Carl Rodgers defines man as an experiencing person that only reacts to the phenomenology or world experiences. Therefore, man’s consciousness is. Carl Rogers () was a humanistic psychologist who agreed with the main assumptions of Abraham Maslow, but added that for a person to "grow", they need an environment that provides them with genuineness (openness and self-disclosure), acceptance (being seen with unconditional positive regard), and empathy (being listened to and understood).
Carl Rodgers and B.F.
Skinner: Behaviorism Comparison between two descriptions of behavior Essay by njzbdboy, High School, 12th grade, A+, February download word file, 3 pages download word file, 3 pages 4 votes4/5(4).
- I decided to write my essay on B.F. Skinner, whose full first name is Burrhus Frederic.
Skinner was born on March 20, and past away on August 18, He is considered an influential psychologist, who is known as an advocate to behaviorism. Carl Rogers () was a humanistic psychologist who agreed with the main assumptions of Abraham Maslow, but added that for a person to “grow”, they need an environment that provides them with genuineness (openness and self-disclosure), acceptance (being seen with unconditional positive regard), and empathy (being listened to and understood).
B.F. Skinner, who favored the behaviorist approach to psychology, criticized the psychoanalytical theory by suggesting that psychology should be the study of behavior and not just the mind.4/5(4).