History[ edit ] Early writing tablet recording the allocation of beer in southern Iraq— BC The cuneiform writing system was in use for more than three millennia, through several stages of development, from the 31st century BC down to the second century AD. It had to be deciphered as a completely unknown writing system in 19th-century Assyriology. Successful completion of its deciphering is dated to The cuneiform script underwent considerable changes over a period of more than two millennia.
Some sections of this work are incomplete but have been posted as is. They will be updated and queries resolved as time permits. Apart from files not yet complete, distribution maps, some figures and habitat photographs are the main items to be added. A question mark may appear in the text appended to items that need to be checked by me.
Numerous queries have led me to post incomplete material. This work has been carried out over a period of 45 years, starting in I arrived in Iran in January and, in that year, 7 articles were published strictly on Iranian fishes 3 on parasites, 1 on pesticides, 1 on fisheries, 1 describing the blind white fish and 1 a summary of the latter; 2 were in Farsi.
A generation later inover articles on Iranian fishes appeared, along with hundreds of relevant works from neighbouring countries, works on the aquatic environment in Iran and works on taxonomy and systematics relevant to Iran.
The study of fishes is now a very active field within Iran and the Middle East and much of the newer literature is easily available on-line see Bibliography. Accordingly, is the last year that this work was updated although some systematic and taxonomic studies may still be incorporated.
The Published Accounts see above were updated versions from content in this website. Acknowledgements A wide range of people in Iran, Canada and elsewhere have assisted me in this work over more than 40 years. Inevitably, I will have forgotten some names, which I regret.
Some people I never met formally, an example being the gentleman nattily dressed in suit by a stream near Kazerun who jumped fully-clothed into the water to help me catch fish. Numerous other Iranians have assisted my studies and this website is dedicated to them.
The staff at the Department of Biology, Shiraz then Pahlavi University helped me in numerous ways to collect fishes during a three-year tenure as an Associate Professor. Bahman Kholdebarin was Chairman of the Department for much of my time in Iran and it is only through his support that I was able to make the collections that enabled this work to be done.
The Research Council of Pahlavi University funded field trips and is gratefully acknowledged for this support. Collections were made with the help of drivers and assistants and their efforts over long periods in the field are gratefully acknowledged. Various other people assisted too and are mentioned below under the Pahlavi University name.
The staff in the CMN library searched out all the numerous and varied papers on fishes in Iran and neighbouring countries without which this synthesis would not be possible. One paper took six years to locate and arrived in the form of a microfilm from the Soviet Union.
I am particularly indebted to Victor Adomaitis who kindly volunteered for the unrewarding task of scanning hundreds of images and converting them to thumbnails and usable files.
Mollie MacCormac carried on this task, making a wide variety of images available for the website. In particular, I should like to acknowledge the support and encouragement of the late Dr.
McAllister, Curator of Fishes, CMN over many years, in terms of training and education, both formal and informal, of financial and moral support, and in practical terms in the ways and means of collecting, cataloguing, identifying, and studying fishes, and of getting things done.
Co-authors are evident in the Bibliography and their added expertise made several studies possible. Various people and their organisations are mentioned below separately for their particular assistance; these are in alphabetical order.
Asghar Abdoli collected numerous specimens including exotics and allowed me to incorporate these discoveries in several papers. Behnke, Colorado State University, Fort Collins is gratefully acknowledged for his extensive loans of, and access to, collections he and associates made.
These are listed more fully in the Materials and Methods. Bianco, University of Naples, allowed me free access to materials, including types, in his possession at the University of Naples and his hospitality is acknowledged. Petersburg are thanked especially for their hospitality, access to collections, data analyses and interpretations on Iranian fishes, as well as co-authorship.THE SUMERIANS THEIR HISTORY, CULTURE, AND CHARACTER Samuel Noah Kramer THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO PRESS Chicago & London.
two areas of Sumerian culture to which I have devoted almost all my scholarly career. While they include, therefore, much that is. The handler should be set to barnweddingvt.com_handler and you can use the existing lambda_dynamodb_streams role that’s been created by default..
Enable DynamoDB trigger and start collecting data.
Everything is ready to go. Open your table using the DynamoDB console and go to the Triggers tab. Select the Create trigger drop down list and choose Existing Lambda function.
Purpose. This work is meant to provide a guide to the freshwater fishes of Iran. There are no modern keys to this fauna, some available books are incomplete or cursory treatments or outdated, and the detailed and diverse scientific literature is widely scattered in time, languages and journals.
Cuneiform or Sumero-Akkadian cuneiform, one of the earliest systems of writing, was invented by the Sumerians. It is distinguished by its wedge-shaped marks on clay tablets, made by means of a blunt reed for a stylus.
The name cuneiform itself simply means "wedge shaped".. Emerging in Sumer in the late fourth millennium BC (the Uruk IV period) to convey the Sumerian language, which was a.
The Sumerians, the pragmatic and gifted people who preceded the Semites in the land first known as Sumer and later as Babylonia, created what was probably the first high civilization in the history of man, spanning the fifth to the second millenniums B.C. Kings of Assyria Assyria or Athura (Aramaic for Assyria) was a Semitic Akkadian kingdom, extant as a nation state from the late 25th or early–24th century BC to BC centred on the Upper Tigris river, in northern Mesopotamia (present day northern Iraq), that came to rule regional empires a .