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Until now, there were significant gaps in knowledge of early morphologies in theoretical stages of feathers as well as in palaeontological material. Here we report fossil evidence of an intermediate and critical stage in the incremental evolution of feathers which has been predicted by developmental theories but hitherto undocumented by evidence from both the recent and the fossil records.
Seven feathers have been found in an Early Cretaceous Late Albian, ca Myr amber of western France, Amber briggs case display a flattened shaft composed by the still distinct and incompletely fused bases of the barbs forming two irregular vanes.
Considering their remarkably primitive features, and since recent discoveries have yielded feathers of modern type in some derived theropod dinosaurs, the Albian feathers from Amber briggs case might have been derived either from an early bird or from a non-avian dinosaur.
Introduction Feathers are complex integumental structures of a three-level branched structure composed of a rachis primary shaftbarbs secondary branches and barbules tertiary branches. Developmental theories propose that feathers evolved through a series of evolutionary novelties in the developmental mechanisms of the follicle and feather germ Dyck ; Prum ; Chuong et al.
Recently, Xu has proposed a somewhat similar model but featuring a combination of transformations and innovations, and suggesting that tubular filaments and branching evolved before the appearance of the feather follicle.
The recent discoveries of feathered dinosaurs from China support the evolutionary model based on developmental data, though additional data are needed to further understand the origin and structure of primitive feathers.
We recently discovered several isolated feathers fossilized in an Early Cretaceous amber of France, which display a primitive structure that illustrates the early formation of this critical stage. In addition to classical optical techniques, we used X-ray synchrotron holotomography Cloetens et al.
It is derived from alternating layers of estuarine sand and clay containing mixed fragments of fossil plants cuticles and lignitic wood. The feathers were originally fossilized in a single piece of amber, alongside 77 arthropods see list in Perrichottable 2.
This piece was fragmented into 22 portions in order to separate inclusions for study. This preparation followed the method described by Perrichot Conventional imaging techniques using transmitted light microscope were first used but did not allow to bring all the information needed to assess precisely the morphology of the feathers.
We performed several propagation phase contrast microtomography and holotomography tests Cloetens et al. As the feathers present a relatively large extension in regard to the size of each barb, it was necessary to combine high-resolution imaging with quite a large field of view.
In order to cover a large enough area of the amber piece, six scans of contiguous parts two scans per line on three lines were taken using local phase microtomography propagation distance of mm in continuous acquisition mode see Lak et al. Being thin structures, feathers are very difficult to extract from these scans, so we used a single-distance holotomographic reconstruction of each scan after filtering of all the projection subtraction of a blurred copy of the picture using a pixel Gaussian filterfollowing the protocol described in Tafforeau et al.
May 22, · Here we report fossil evidence of an intermediate and critical stage in the incremental evolution of feathers which has been predicted by developmental theories but hitherto undocumented by evidence from both the recent and the fossil records. (Davis & Briggs ) and are rather rare in amber, Case G.R. A feather in amber. Learn more about the minds behind Peloton's commercial real estate leadership team. 10 best songs from popular TV shows from Bishop Briggs, Amber Run, Disturbed and more today, I thought it would be interesting to look at some of the best songs from popular TV shows, just in case you missed these, and you can catch up. You never know, you may come across an exciting new artist that creates the type of music you just love.
The data preparation allowed enhancement of the visibility of the feathers and other fine structures relative to larger ones. After correction of the strong ring artefacts Tafforeau et al.
Owing to the large size of the data 40 Gba three-step segmentation protocol was used to limit the processing time. As the feathers appeared as white structures in the grey matrix of resin, the whole dataset was reduced by a linear factor of 8 corresponding to a reduction by of the volume using binning by maximum.
That new volume was visualized and segmented in three dimensions using VGStudioMax v.
The binary segmentation mask was then exported, extrapolated to fit with the original dataset, and applied to it. The area containing the most visible feather was selected on that new volume and a fine segmentation was performed in order to prepare three-dimensional renderings.Amber Lynn Grimes arrested in Baldwin, Alabama on ; FOX News reports that a tossed cigarette butt has led to an arrest in a year-old cold case murder.
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